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Bone grafting and GBR


What is Bone Grafting?

Advances in medicine and dentistry have led to new and expanded areas of treatment. The two areas of Bone grafting and guided bone regeneration (GBR) in the jawbones and around teeth are two that have recently experienced tremendous growth. Procedures to repair and grow new bone, which was not known before, are now a major step in the routine dental surgical care.

Need for Bone Grafts and GBR

Bone grafts & GBR are needed when a portion of the bone is missing. This missing portion of bone is called a "bony defect".

The jawbone defects that are usually treated by this procedure are:

  • Defects present around the roots of teeth (periodontal defects)
  • Defects that occur during the tooth extraction
  • Generalized decrease in the jawbone from a trauma or long-term tooth loss
  • Defects present around the dental implants
  • Defects that result from cyst or tumour removal surgery.

Bone grafting

It is a surgical procedure that replaces the patient’s missing bone with a bone graft material. This not only replaces the missing bone but also helps the body in the re-growth of the lost bone.

This newly formed bone that was re-grown will help strengthen the area that was grafted by forming a bridge between the existing bone and the graft. The newly formed bone will start replacing much of the grafted material slowly after some time.

Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR)

It is a technique in which a collagen membrane which is resorbable or non-resorbable titanium membrane is placed over the bone graft site. This membrane further encourages the new bone to grow and prevents the formation of scar tissue in the grafted site.

Procedure of Bone Graft and GBR

The following is an example of the procedures that are performed following a tooth extraction.

  • The tooth is removed and the tooth socket is thoroughly cleaned to remove all inflamed and infected tissue.
  • An appropriate bone grafting material is carefully placed into the extraction socket.
  • GBR membrane is then placed over the grafted material.
  • Sutures in the gum tissue allow proper healing of the surrounding soft tissues.

These procedures are usually done in the dental clinic under local anaesthesia or local anaesthesia with I.V. sedation or general anaesthesia. The patient usually feels no pain or a small pain during these procedures.

After the procedure, the patient might experience some swelling and mild to moderate discomfort. This is mainly from the other procedures that were performed, such as tooth extraction, cyst removal, etc.

Generally, the patient is provided a similar care that is required after any dental surgical procedure, following the Jawbone Grafting & GBR.

Success rate of Bone grafting & GBR

The latest technological advances have increased the success rates of these procedures, leading to bone formation and resolution of the defect. However, various other reasons are also responsible for the success rates of these procedures

Also, different graft & GBR materials affect the amount of new bone formed. And finally, the patient’s own overall health will also determine the rate of the new bone formed within the grafted site.

Authored by DR.NIRANJAN P

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